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Language, a system of conventional spoken, manual, or written symbols by means of which human beings, as members of a social group and participants in its culture, express themselves. Therefore functions of language include communication, the expression of identity, play, imaginative. There are number of languages spoken in states of India, the list is given below.

The spoken languages in India belong to several language families, the major ones being the Indo-Aryan languages spoken by 78.05% of Indians and the Dravidian languages spoken by 19.64% of Indians. Languages by the remaining 2.31% of the population belong to the Austroasiatic, Sino-Tibetan, Tai-Kadai and a few other minor language families and isolates. Therefore to get the knowledge of various languages please refer the given list of languages spoken in states of India.

Article 343 of the Indian constitution stated that the official language of the Union should become Hindi in Devanagari script instead of the extant English and  Hindi is the official language of the central government in India, with English as a provisional official sub-language, individual state legislatures can adopt any regional language as the official language of that state.

Some useful facts about language spoken in states of India.

  • India (Number of languages: 780) has the world’s second highest number of languages, after Papua New Guinea (Number of languages: 839).
  • The Southern Indian languages belongs to the Dravidian family.
  • The Northern Indian languages belongs to the Indo-Aryan branch of the Indo-European family evolved from Old Indic by way of the Middle Indic Prakrit languages and Apabhraṃśa of the Middle Ages.
State/UTPrimary LanguageLanguage 2Language 3Language 4Language 5
Andaman & Nicobar IslandsBengaliHindiTamilTeluguMalayalam
Andhra PradeshTeluguUrduTamilKannadaOriya
Arunachal PradeshBengaliNepaliHindiAssameseOriya
AssamAssameseBengaliHindiBodoNe
BiharHindi (Bhojpuri and Magadhi Dialects)MaithiliUrduBengaliSantali
ChandigarhPunjabiHindiUrduTamilBengali
ChhattisgarhHindi (Chhattisgarhi)OriyaTeluguBengaliMarathi
Dadra & Nagar HaveliGujaratiHindiKonkaniMarathiMalayalam
Daman & DiuGujaratiHindiMarathiBengaliOriya
DelhiHindiPunjabiUrduBengaliTamil
GoaKonkaniMarathiHindiKannadaUrdu
GujaratGujaratiHindiMarathiRajasthani
HaryanaHindiPunjabiUrduBengaliNepali
Himachal PradeshHindiPunjabiDogriKashmiriDogri
Jammu and KashmirKashmiriDogriHindiPunjabiMarathi
JharkhandHindi (Bhojpuri, Magadhi,and Nagpuri Dialects).MaithaliSanthaliUrduBengali
KarnatakaKannadaUrduTeluguTamilMarathi
KeralaMalayalamTamilKannadaKonkaniTelugu
LakshadweepMalayalamTamilKonkaniHindiGujarati
Madhya PradeshHindiMarathiUrduSindhiGujarati
MaharashtraMarathiHindiTeluguGujaratiKannada
ManipurManipuriBengaliHindiNepaliAssamese
MeghalayaKashiGaroBengaliAssameseEnglish
MizoramMizoEnglishHindiManipuriChakma
NagalandNaga LanguagesEnglishHindiAssameseManipuri
OdishaOriyaBengaliTeluguHindiSantali
PuducherryTamilMalayalamTeluguUrduFrench
PunjabPunjabiHindiUrduBengaliEnglish
RajasthanHindi (Rajasthani)PunjabiUrduSindhiGujarati
SikkimNepaliHindiBengaliAssameseBodo
Tamil NaduTamilTeluguKannadaUrduMalayalam
TelanganaTeluguUrduMarathiKannadaHindi
TripuraBengaliKokborokAssameseEnglishManipuri
Uttar PradeshHindiEnglishPunjabiBhojpuriMaithili
UttarakhandHindi (Garhwali, Kumaoni, and Jaunsari Dialects)UrduPunjabiBengaliNepali
West BengalBengaliHindiUrduOriyaNepali


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